Tibetan theocracy

The decline of the State and the Tibetan theocracy. (starting from IX S.)

Monarchy disappears after 850 and the country falls to the hands from the ministers and the religious leaders.
The Buddhist monasteries will take a rise without precedent.

The country is subjected to Gengis Khan (the Mongolian invader) in 1207 and, in 1260, the religious government of Tibet is entrusted to Kubilay Khan (its grandson).

In 1447, Gedun Drub (1391-1474), the 1st Dalaï Lama (reincarnation of the Buddha of the compassion and who reached the nirvana) founds the Tashilhumpo monastery, whose chiefs take the title of Panchen LAMA which is the second religious authority after Dalaï Lama.

It is in1642 that the 5th Dalaï Lama, Lozang Gyatso, famous for having established the Tibetan capital city in Lhassa and build the Potala palace, is declared “temporal chief of Tibet”, by the Mongolian emperor Güshi Khan.

The year 1644 marks the fall of Ming and the last dynasty, the Qing dynasty, who are Manchu, will reign on China until 1911.

Dalaï Lama will control Tibet until 1949, sometimes as a Head of State, sometimes as vassal of the Emperor of China and either as 1st great lama or sharing the power with the Panchen lama.


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